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The Ifugao Rice Terraces (IRT) in the Philippines was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1995 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. In 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organization also inscribed it as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems site, the first in the Philippines. Despite these recognitions, the IRT faces various challenges such as under-management of biocultural diversity and socio-ecological systems, poor maintenance, abandonment of r…

In Nagaland, located within the Indo-Burma and Himalaya biodiversity hotspots in India, customary rights are protected by the Indian Constitution, and the majority of natural habitats (88.3%) are owned and managed by individuals and clans overseen by village councils, district councils and other traditional institutions. However, in the absence of alternative livelihood options, most of the economic activities in the villages are based upon utilization of natural resources. This has led to over …

Nomadic pastoralism was the predominant way of life in the mountain communities of Kyrgyzstan for centuries.…

Shangde was once a prosperous village in Taitung, east Taiwan, with over 2,000 residents growing high-priced lemongrass and manufacturing products of citronella oil. However, following a stunning drop in the market and price of natural citronella oil due to the rise of synthesized chemicals since 1967, many residents gave up local agriculture and left in the 1980s, which resulted in a sharp decline of population to less than 200. Other socio-economic consequences in Shangde included deceasing in…

Chinese Society for Environmental Education has assisted Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan in preparing, planning, establishing, operating and training 8 Nature Centers since 2006 in order to transform the learning site into the channel between forestry policies and general public. The earlier forestry policies in Taiwan mainly focused on timber production and had gradually adjusted to sustainable forestry management. Based on the international Satoyama Initiative, the inte…

Under the influence of extreme climate change and severe population migration, how to maintain living conditions, preserve traditional knowledge, and encourage young people to return home is a very important issue. The "Under-Forest Economy", which replaces deforestation with the development of forest by-products, is an important strategy that has been promoted by the Taiwan government in recent years to aid the local area’s cultural. social and economic development. In order to help the Rukai p…

Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS) frequently illustrate potential synergies between socio-economic development, multifunctional use of land, preservation of traditional knowledge, enhancement of ecosystem services and the conservation of biodiversity. As such, efforts for the conservation and enhancement of SEPLS can be considered aligned with “Other Effective Area-Based Conservation Measures” (OECM), as defined by Aichi Biodiversity Target 11, established by the Conve…

The Kaya forests, located in Kenya’s coastal landscape, are sacred forests of the Mijikenda community. These forests are peculiar multi-functional socio-ecological production landscapes that are rich in biodiversity.…

The maintenance of functional integrity and health of ecosystems within protected areas is dependent not only on the protection provided but also on the ecological, economic and social interactions with surrounding areas.…

In the area at the mouth of the rivers Chone and Portoviejo, which consists of mangrove forest, islands, beaches, wetlands and saltwater areas, and incorporates the dry tropical forest of the Bálsamo Mountain Range, local communities have been living on fish, crustaceans, shellfish harvesting and agriculture. However, harvesting has been significantly reduced due to sedimentation and pollution, mainly caused by the chemical residue of agricultural and shrimp farming activities.…